The types of batteries required for work on electricity are shown below. The battery voltage suggested in the exemplars that follow is by way of example only. Other batteries could be substituted. However, the battery voltage should be about the same as that specified on the bulb, for example:



1.5 V

1.25 V

3 V

2.5 V

4.5 V

3.5 V

6 V

6 V

Bulbs and bulb holders

Commercial bulb holders can be obtained through science suppliers. However, improvised bulb holders can be made by the children, using

  • Plasticine
  • Clothes pegs
  • Plastic film cylinders. Punch a hole in each end of a round film holder (the cylinder used to contain 35 mm film). Insert a brass paper fastener and press it open. Attach the wires to the brass paper fastener. An R6 battery should fit exactly inside the holder. The circuit is made as the terminals of the battery touch the brass paper fasteners.

Activities on electromagnetism may require the use of nails. Teachers should ensure that only blunt nails are used; hammering the tip of a nail will achieve a blunt finish.

Crocodile clips can be used to make connections in circuits. These are particularly helpful for younger children, who may not have the manual dexterity to use a screwdriver to connect leads. It may be necessary to mount bulb holders onto wooden blocks and connect the crocodile clips to screw eyes.